UEA RESEARCH SHOWS OCEANS VITAL FOR POSSIBILITY FOR ALIEN LIFE
From the News Desk of Jeanne Hambleton
Posted July 20 2014
Source University of East Anglia Stone Hearth News
Researchers at the University of East Anglia have made an important step in the race to discover whether other planets could develop and sustain life.
New research published today in the journal Astrobiology shows the vital role of oceans in moderating climate on Earth-like planets.
Until now, computer simulations of habitable climates on Earth-like planets have focused on their atmospheres. But the presence of oceans is vital for optimal climate stability and habitability.
The research team from UEA’s schools of Maths and Environmental Sciences created a computer simulated pattern of ocean circulation on a hypothetical ocean-covered Earth-like planet. They looked at how different planetary rotation rates would impact heat transport with the presence of oceans taken into account.
Prof David Stevens from UEA’s school of Maths said: “The number of planets being discovered outside our solar system is rapidly increasing. This research will help answer whether or not these planets could sustain alien life.
“We know that many planets are completely uninhabitable because they are either too close or too far from their sun. A planet’s habitable zone is based on its distance from the sun and temperatures at which it is possible for the planet to have liquid water.
“But until now, most habitability models have neglected the impact of oceans on climate.
“Oceans have an immense capacity to control climate. They are beneficial because they cause the surface temperature to respond very slowly to seasonal changes in solar heating. And they help ensure that temperature swings across a planet are kept to tolerable levels.
“We found that heat transported by oceans would have a major impact on the temperature distribution across a planet, and would potentially allow a greater area of a planet to be habitable.
“Mars for example is in the sun’s habitable zone, but it has no oceans – causing air temperatures to swing over a range of 100OC. Oceans help to make a planet’s climate more stable so factoring them into climate models is vital for knowing whether the planet could develop and sustain life.
“This new model will help us to understand what the climates of other planets might be like with more accurate detail than ever before.”
‘The Importance of Planetary Rotation Period for Ocean Heat Transport’ is published in the journal Astrobiology on Monday, July 21, 2014. The research was funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC).
LOWER SURVIVAL RATES FOR CONSUMERS OF PROCESSED MEAT
From the News Desk of Jeanne Hambleton
Source Stone Hearth News – American Society for Nutrition
Posted on July 20, 2014
Differences in survival associated with processed and with non processed red meat consumption.
First published July 16, 2014, doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.086249 Am J Clin Nutr September 2014 ajcn.086249.
Andrea Bellavia, Susanna C Larsson, Matteo Bottai, Alicja Wolk, and Nicola Orsini.
From the Unit of Nutritional Epidemiology (AB, SCL, AW, and NO) and the Unit of Biostatistics (AB, MB, and NO), Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Supported in part by a Young Scholar Award from the Karolinska Institutet’s Strategic Program in Epidemiology and the Swedish Medical Society (SLS-250271) and by the Swedish Research Council.
Correspondence to A Bellavia, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, PO Box, SE-171 77, Stockholm, Sweden. E-mail: email@example.com.
Background: High red meat consumption is associated with an increased mortality risk. This association is partly explained by the negative effect of processed meat consumption, which is widely established. The role of non processed meat is unclear.
Objective: The objective was to examine the combined association of processed and non processed meat consumption with survival in a Swedish large prospective cohort.
Design: In a population-based cohort of 74,645 Swedish men (40,089) and women (34,556), red meat consumption was assessed through a self-administered questionnaire.
We estimated differences in survival [15th percentile differences (PDs), differences in the time by which the first 15% of the cohort died] according to levels of total red meat and combined levels of processed and non processed red meat consumption.
During 15 y of follow-up (January 1998 to December 2012), we documented 16,683 deaths (6948 women; 9735 men). Compared with no consumption, consumption of red meat >100 g/d was progressively associated with shorter survival—up to 2 y for participants consuming an average of 300 g/d (15th PD: –21 mo; 95% CI: –31, –10). Compared with no consumption, high consumption of processed red meat (100 g/d) was associated with shorter survival (15th PD: –9 mo; 95% CI: –16, –2). High and moderate intakes of non processed red meat were associated with shorter survival only when accompanied by a high intake of processed red meat.
We found that high total red meat consumption was associated with progressively shorter survival, largely because of the consumption of processed red meat. Consumption of non processed red meat alone was not associated with shorter survival.
PROCESSED RED MEAT LINKED TO HIGHER RISK OF HEART FAILURE, DEATH IN MEN –
American Heart Association Rapid Access Journal Report
From the News Desk of Jeanne Hambleton
Posted on June 12, 2014
Source Stone Hearth News – American Heart Association
Men who eat moderate amounts of processed red meat may have an increased risk of incidence and death from heart failure, according to a study in Circulation: Heart Failure, an American Heart Association journal.
Processed meats are preserved by smoking, curing, salting or adding preservatives. Examples include cold cuts (ham, salami), sausage, bacon and hot dogs.
“Processed red meat commonly contains sodium, nitrates, phosphates and other food additives, and smoked and grilled meats also contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, all of which may contribute to the increased heart failure risk,” said Alicja Wolk, D.M.Sc., senior author of the study and professor in the Division of Nutritional Epidemiology at the Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, Sweden.
“Unprocessed meat is free from food additives and usually has a lower amount of sodium.”
The Cohort of Swedish Men study — the first to examine the effects of processed red meat separately from unprocessed red meat — included 37,035 men 45-79 years old with no history of heart failure, ischemic heart disease or cancer.
Participants completed a questionnaire on food intake and other lifestyle factors and researchers followed them from 1998 to the date of heart failure diagnosis, death or the end of the study in 2010.
After almost 12 years of follow-up, researchers found:
• Heart failure was diagnosed in 2,891 men and 266 died from heart failure.
• Men who ate the most processed red meat (75 grams per day or more) had a 28 percent higher risk of heart failure compared to men who ate the least (25 grams per day or less) after adjusting for multiple lifestyle variables.
• Men who ate the most processed red meat had more than a 2-fold increased risk of death from heart failure compared to men in the lowest category.
• For each 50 gram (e.g. 1-2 slices of ham) increase in daily consumption of processed meat, the risk of heart failure incidence increased by 8 percent and the risk of death from heart failure by 38 percent.
• The risk of heart failure or death among those who ate unprocessed red meat didn’t increase.
At the beginning of the study, participants completed a 96-item questionnaire about their diet. Processed meat questions focused on consumption of sausages, cold cuts (ham/salami), blood pudding/sausages and liver pate over the last year. Unprocessed meat questions covered pork and beef/veal, including hamburger or ground-minced meat.
Results of the study for total red meat consumption are consistent with findings from the Physicians’ Health Study, in which men who ate the most total red meat had a 24 percent higher risk of heart failure incidence compared to those who ate the least.
“To reduce your risk of heart failure and other cardiovascular diseases, we suggest avoiding processed red meat in your diet, and limiting the amount of unprocessed red meat to one to two servings per week or less,” said Joanna Kaluza, Ph.D., study lead author and assistant professor in the Department of Human Nutrition at Warsaw University of Life Sciences in Poland.
“Instead, eat a diet rich in fruit, vegetables, whole grain products, nuts and increase your servings of fish.”
Researchers said they expect to find similar associations in a current study conducted with women.
Almost 6 million Americans have heart failure and about 50 percent die within five years of diagnosis. The healthcare costs and loss of productivity due to heart failure are an estimated $34 billion each year, researchers said.
The American Heart Association recommends that people eat a dietary pattern that emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, poultry, fish, and nuts while limiting red meat and sugary foods and beverages.
For people who eat meat, choose lean meats and poultry without skin and eat fish at least twice a week – preferably fish high in omega-3 fatty acids such as salmon, trout, and herring.
The other co-author is Agneta Akesson, Ph.D. Author disclosures are on the manuscript.
The Swedish Research Council/Medicine and the Swedish Research Council/Infrastructure funded the study.
•The American Heart Association’s Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations
•Eat More Chicken, Fish and Beans than Red Meat
•Follow AHA/ASA news on Twitter @HeartNews.
Statements and conclusions of study authors published in American Heart Association scientific journals are solely those of the study authors and do not necessarily reflect the association’s policy or position.
The association makes no representation or guarantee as to their accuracy or reliability. The association receives funding primarily from individuals; foundations and corporations (including pharmaceutical, device manufacturers and other companies) also make donations and fund specific association programs and events.